Ick, the TICKS!

posted on April 01, 2016 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

It is that time of year again-we are seeing ticks already!  Any time the weather is above freezing for more than a few days in a row, ticks can emerge and start to wreak havoc.

Ticks can transmit a number of diseases including Lyme disease, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Babesia.  These diseases can cause lameness, fever, lethargy, decrease in appetite, kidney disease, thrombocytopenia, (low platelets, the clotting cells), anemia (low red blood cells), or leukopenia (low white blood cell counts).  Please see this previous blog regarding Lyme disease.

Prevention is key for these diseases.  Topical monthly flea and tick preventatives such as Parastar Plus or Frontline Plus are recommended.  An alternative is Nexgard which is a monthly chewable preventative.

There is a vaccine available for Lyme disease as well.  Please discuss with your veterinarian if your pet is at risk and would benefit from this.  Lyme disease is endemic in this area (meaning it is prevalent here-see the map of human cases tracked by the CDC).

Thoroughly examining your pet after being outside, especially if in tall grasses or wooded areas can help find ticks before they attach as well.  Most of the tick borne illnesses need the tick to be attached for at least 24 hours in order to transmit diseases.  Catching them before they attach or get engorged will help prevent disease transmission.

If you have questions about tick borne illnesses, how to prevent them, or if you think your pet may have been exposed, please call us to discuss further!

Posted in: Canine Health

Lyme disease

posted on November 04, 2013 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

While the temperatures have finally turned cold enough that ticks are a fleeting memory, this is one of the times of year where we see our highest prevalence of tick borne illnesses (spring being the other time).  While there are a number of tick borne illnesses, one of the more common ones is Lyme disease.

Lyme disease, or Borrelia burgdorferi, is a common tick borne illness in the Northeastern United States.  It is carried by the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis.  An infected deer tick must bite an animal and attach itself for 24-48 hours in order to transmit Lyme disease, so finding unattached ticks or using a product that kills ticks within 24-48 hours should prevent infection. If an animal does become infected, it takes many weeks to months before signs become apparent.  Animals do not tend to get a target-like rash from the original tick bite like humans do.  When they do show signs, they are often nonspecific such as fever, inappetance, lethargy, limping, especially shifting leg lameness, and just not acting like themselves.  Often this is because of multiple joint arthritis, or joint inflammation and pain.  Since it can take months to see these signs, a bite in early spring before the first dose of tick preventative is applied is usually not noticed until the following fall.

If your pet is showing any of these signs, or is just not acting right, we may recommend performing tick borne illness testing such as the Idexx 4Dx Plus test.  This test looks at a number of common tick borne illnesses including Lyme disease, as well as Ehrlichia (canis and ewingii), and Anaplamsa (platys and phagocytophilum) which can produce similar symptoms in pets.   This test looks for antibodies to the Lyme organism.  Antibodies are produced by the body when it is exposed to an infectious agent, and can remain in the body for months to years.  This means that this test does not indicate an active infection, just that the pet has been exposed to Lyme disease at some point in the past.  However, since there can be serious side effects in rare cases that can cause kidney damage, most veterinarians will use a course of antibiotics to treat a positive result in a pet that is showing symptoms.

There is a vaccine available for Lyme disease.  This vaccine must be given before any exposure to Lyme disease however to be effective.  It should be started as a puppy or at the onset of a lifestyle change that would increase exposure in an adult dog, and must be given every year to keep immunity up.

Tick control is also a very important part of preventing Lyme disease.  Using a product that kills ticks before they have been attached for 24-48 hours is vital.  These monthly topical products should be started in spring once we have reached a temperature above freezing for more than 3 days in a row-this usually means March, and should be continued until we are not getting multiple days in a row that are above freezing-generally November in this area.  Examining your pet after excursions into the woods, brush, tall grass, or up to the cabin for any ticks is also recommended, but deer ticks are extremely small and can be easily missed, so prevention is key.

One last point to bring up is that pets cannot give people Lyme disease, but they can be reservoirs for it, so if a tick bites them and then either completes its life cycle and bites a human or produces eggs which are infected and one of the offspring bites a human, this human could get Lyme disease.

Talk to us today about Lyme disease and your pet.  We can help determine a good plan of prevention, whether that includes vaccination, or just flea and tick preventatives.  Also call us if your pet is showing any signs that may indicate tick borne illness so we can test and implement appropriate therapy as soon as possible.

Posted in: Canine Health

April showers bring May flowers, fleas, and ticks!

posted on April 02, 2013 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

Fleas and ticks are external parasites that can cause a variety of health issues for our pets.

Fleas can cause general annoyance from itching, while heavier infestations can cause an anemia (low red blood cell count) which may be fatal to young or small pets.  Fleas can also carry diseases such as the plague, cat scratch fever, and can transmit tapeworms.  Pets can also become allergic to fleas, which can lead to secondary skin issues.

Ticks can carry diseases that are much more severe in nature.  Lyme disease is a bacterial infection carried by ticks.  Ehrlichia is a white blood cell parasite.  Anaplasma is a platelet (clotting cell) parasite.  Babesia is a red blood cell parasite in dogs, and Hepatozoonosis is a white blood cell parasite in dogs.  Cytauxzoonosis is a red blood cell parasite in cats.

These many different diseases carried by ticks can cause a variety of signs in our pets.  Polyarthritis (pain in multiple joints) which can present as reluctance to move, difficulty getting up and down stairs, on and off furniture, or standing or laying down, swollen lymph nodes, decreased appetite, dehydration, fever, weakness, muscle loss or wasting, and generalized pain or increased sensitivity are a few of the symptoms.  More include hypothermia, difficulty breathing, edema (buildup of fluids), weight loss, anemia (seen as pale gums), depression, lethargy, enlarged spleen, bounding pulse, vomiting, diarrhea, bruising, bleeding disorders (such as nose bleeds), eye problems such as inflammation, discharge and even blindness, jaundice (yellowing of skin), shock, coma, and in very severe cases, death.

For these reason, we here at Heritage Animal Hospital recommend using flea and tick preventatives such as Frontline® or Revolution®.

Frontline® is a monthly topical flea and tick preventative.  It is poured on the skin between the shoulder blades and is absorbed into the hair follicles and spreads over the entire body through the skin.  This means it is not a systemic medication and will not interfere with other medications or internal organs.  Fleas and ticks do not need to bite the animal to die; fleas will die within about 12 hours of contact, and ticks will die within about 48 hours of contact, which is less than the amount of time they need to feed in order to spread any diseases they carry.

Revolution® is also a monthly topical product, but unlike Frontline®, it is a systemic medication.  Because of this, it offers protection from a few more parasites than Frontline® does, but it should be pointed out that Revolution® for cats does not protect against ticks.  Revolution® for cats protects against fleas, heartworm, ear mites, hookworms, and roundworms.  Revolution® for dogs protects against fleas, ticks, heartworm, ear mites, and sarcoptic mange.

We carry both of these products in our in-house pharmacy.  We offer special rebates directly through the manufacturers of these products, and can offer the guarantees associated with the products which are only valid if purchased from a veterinarian.

For more information on the various diseases caused by fleas and ticks, please visit the Companion Animal Parasite Council at http://www.capcvet.org.  Discuss with your veterinarian today which flea and tick preventative is right for your pet.