November is National Diabetes Month

posted on November 03, 2014 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

A common disease seen in dogs and cats is diabetes mellitus, or diabetes.  The pancreas is a L-shaped gland that sits next to the stomach and part of the small intestines called the duodenum.  The pancreas is responsible for producing a number of digestive hormones, such as insulin and glucagon.  Insulin is a hormone that helps digest sugar.  It is like the “key” to unlock the blood cells, allowing sugar to be used as energy.  Diabetes is the lack of or underproduction of insulin.

Without insulin, the sugar keeps circulating in the blood stream but is not available for use as energy, and therefore the body turns to fat stores and even muscles to fuel itself, which can lead to dangerous byproducts called ketones building up in the blood stream.  Also, the body is essentially in starvation mode at this point, as all of the food that is being eaten is unable to be used as energy, so the body is breaking down its reserves.

Signs that your pet may have diabetes include weight loss, usually despite a good to increased appetite, increased thirst, and increased urinations.  Since these symptoms can also be seen with other serious diseases such as kidney disease or thyroid disorders amongst others, if your pet is exhibiting any of these signs please schedule an appointment with us as soon as possible.

An examination may reveal weight loss and muscle loss, cataract development in the eyes, or other signs which may make diabetes a likely culprit.  Likely a blood sample will be taken to look at liver and kidney functions, red and white blood cells, and most importantly a blood glucose or sugar level.  A urine sample may be collected to look for signs of ketones or sugar in the urine, as well as signs of an infection.  Additional blood work to look at a fructosamine level, which checks the average blood glucose level over the last couple of weeks may be required to get a diagnosis.

If your pet does indeed have an elevated blood sugar, fructosamine, or glucose and/or ketones in the urine, a diagnosis of diabetes will likely be made.  Treatment often includes insulin injections and a diet change.  Specific treatment plans are formulated on a case by case basis.  With proper care, diabetic pets can live long, healthy lives.  If you think your pet may have diabetes, please call us today!

My Pet’s Tummy is Upset

posted on March 06, 2014 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

The pet’s GI, or gastrointestinal, tract, is a word used to describe the tube that takes food from the mouth, to the stomach, intestines, and colon.  It may also include a number of organs that help with digestion of nutrients and removal of waste products, including the pancreas, liver, and kidneys, thyroid, and even the brain.  Given that most of the body is included in this list, it shouldn’t be a surprise that when a pet becomes ill, one of the many signs we might see can include the GI tract, such as vomiting.

Vomiting is a very common complaint in our pets.  You might think it means that there is something wrong with the GI tract itself, which may be true, but issues in many of the other organs of the can also lead to vomiting.  This is why we recommend an examination, take a thorough history of signs, appetite, exposure to other pets, toxins, foods, etc. and may recommend tests including blood work to look at organ function, for signs of infection or anemia, stool analysis to look at bacterial balance, and x-rays or ultrasound to look internally at the organs.

Just to give you an idea of things that can cause vomiting in a pet, here is a list.  It is by no means a complete list however, but does include some of the more common causes:

  • anxiety
  • nervous system dysfunction such as vestibular disease (vertigo), motion sickness, megaesophagus, or other motility issues within the GI tract
  • toxin exposure or ingestion
  • dietary indiscretion-this can range from eating something too rich or fatty which could lead to pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), to eating something that just doesn’t agree with the pet and causes gastroenteritis or colitis (inflammation of the GI tract or colon respectively), or eating something that is harmful to the pet (toxin, foreign material)
  • Hairballs and other foreign materials or blockages, also including intuscusseptions
  • Bacterial overgrowth or imbalance
  • Viral, bacterial, fungal, and other infections
  • Ulcers or too much stomach acids
  • Tumors
  • GDV (twisted stomach) or bloat (though sometimes the symptom of these are vomiting WITHOUT producing anything)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease, dietary intolerance, allergies, or allergic reactions
  • Metabolic issues such as diabetes, hyperthyroidism, Addison’s disease, or liver or kidney diseases

As you can see, there are quite a few reasons your pet may be vomiting, which is why we recommend coming in for an examination and testing as mentioned above.  Pending results of the preliminary testing, further testing to look at more specific causes may be recommended such as an ACTH stimulation test, urinalysis, fructosamine level, culture and sensitivity, biopsies, diet changes, allergy testing, barium series, or others.

By working together to determine the cause of the vomiting, we hope to be able to come up with a specific treatment plan to help your pet (and your carpets!) feel better.  Call us today if your pet is vomiting!

Forget the apple a day, have a pet to keep the doctor away!

posted on February 04, 2014 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

A recent study done in Australia found that kids that have a pet (specifically a guinea pig) in the classroom have better social skills and fewer problem behaviors.  This study was particularly looking at classrooms that had Autistic children present.  However, it has been found that animals can help a variety of human conditions and can be beneficial to your health overall.

According to WebMD, there are many benefits to having pets.  Pets can reduce allergies, asthma, and eczema.  They can reduce anxiety in Alzheimer’s patients.  They can increase exercise and companionship.  They can decrease depression.  They can decrease blood pressure and heart disease risks.  They can help with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), autism, and ADHD.

Dogs can also be trained to help people with diseases in a more specialized way-low blood sugar sensing dogs for diabetics, seizure sensing dogs for epileptics, seeing eye dogs for the blind, and cancer detecting canines.  Can do canines, a local facility, helps place dogs with people with a wide range of disabilities.

While not everyone needs a specially trained pet, there are many studies proving that pets can help improve your health and well being.  So give your furry friend a hug and enjoy the release of endorphins you’ll receive!

Posted in: Uncategorized

Obesity as an Epidemic

posted on August 03, 2012 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

As the calendars turn to August, one thought enters my mind-food on a stick!  August brings the state fair, and while I know a deep fried candy bar on a stick is not healthy for me, as an occasional, once a year treat, it is okay to indulge.  While many people realize watching what we eat is important for a number of health reasons, these same people may not realize watching what our pets eat is just as important.

You may think an extra pound or two can’t hurt that much, but a pound is not just a pound.  While two or three additional pounds may have very little effect on you or me, they can be quite serious for your pet.  Three extra pounds on a 15 pound dog is equivalent to a 150 pound person gaining 30 extra pounds, and  3 extra pounds on a 10 pound cat is equal to 45 extra pounds on a 150 pound person!

Obesity and overweightness is the #1 health condition affecting American pets today.  Purina estimates that 58% of cats and 45% of dogs are overweight or obese.  This equals 35 million dogs and 54 million cats!

This is a serious epidemic as being overweight has been linked with a higher incidence of a number of health issues including oral (mouth) disease, skin disease, diabetes, pancreatitis, thyroid disease, joint diseases such as arthritis and hip dysplasia, hepatitis, urinary tract disease, asthma, torn ligaments such as ACLs, liver disease, heart disease, kidney disease, exercise intolerance, slower wound healing, increased anesthetic risk, and cancer.

Even more importantly, it has been found that being overweight can significantly decrease lifespan.  Purina did the first life-long study in dogs regarding diet and its effect on pets.  Half of the dogs were fed free choice, meaning they were allowed to eat as much as they liked.  The other half of the dogs were fed 25% less than what the free fed dogs ate.  The differences were amazing!

Dogs that were allowed to free feed had an average body condition score (BCS) of 6.7/9 (4.5/9 being ideal), whereas dogs that were slightly restricted had a BCS of 4.6.  The control fed dogs lived 15% longer-almost 2 years, with an average of 13 years in the control fed dogs versus 11.2 years in the free fed dogs.  Lastly, the control fed dogs didn’t start needing treatment for medical conditions until a median age of 12 years, whereas the free choice pets started needing treatment at a median age of 9.9 years.

What does this mean for your pet?  Simply put, a pet kept at a healthy weight throughout life is a healthier pet, and has a longer average lifespan.

How can you help keep your pet healthy?  Veterinarians use something called the body condition score to assess a pet’s weight, as there can be quite a range of “normal” weights for a specific dog breed.  Body condition score is a way to judge how much fat or muscle is on an animal and is more accurate than weight in judging an animal’s body composition.  It is based on a 1-9 scale, with a 4-5 being a healthy weight.

To score body condition, a couple areas are looked at:

  • Are the bones visible?  Bones such as the ribs, spine, and hip bones should not be visible in most dogs and cats.  Some breeds are naturally leaner and in them it may be normal to see the bones.
  • How easily are the ribs felt?  They should feel as though you are running your finger over the back of your other hand’s fingers.  There should be a slight fat covering, but you should not have to push hard to be able to feel the ribs.
  • Is there a tuck of the abdomen visible from the side of the animal?  There should be a nice tuck visible.
  • Is there a waist visible when viewing the animal from above?  There should be a waist visible.

BCS-300x137

If you think your pet may be overweight or obese and would like help formulating a diet plan, or if you would like to prevent your pet from becoming overweight, please contact us to discuss calorie requirements and feeding guidelines for your pet, or visit our website for more information.

Posted in: Obesity

Cat Questions

posted on July 17, 2012 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

Dr. Silverstein was recently interviewed in The Senior Scene, a publication put out quarterly for Maple Grove senior citizens.  In it he answered many commonly asked questions regarding cats and their health.  Please check out the current newsletter (pdf link for The Senior Scene quarterly newsletter is located about half way down page).  After September 2012, a copy of the old newsletter can be found here Dr. Silverstein’s article is located on pages 5-6.

For more information regarding common feline diseases, please see our website.  We would be happy to discuss your cat’s health with you whether it be prevention, diagnosing, or treating, so give us a call today!

Posted in: Feline Health