Cold weather and cabin fever

posted on January 31, 2019 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

With the polar vortex swirling freezing air around, there are a few safety and sanity tips we’d like to share with you!

Keep pets inside!  This may seem obvious to some, but it bears repeating.  While some dogs have thicker/double coats and are adapted to colder temperatures, these negative temperatures are too cold for all pets.  Frost bite is possible on sensitive skin such as paw pads.  Limit exposure to short bathroom breaks, and use protective wear such as booties, paw balms, and/or sweaters and coats.

If you have pets that cannot be kept inside, make sure they have access to shelter and unfrozen water.  Consider offering shelter in your garage or shed, or providing “nest boxes” for neighborhood strays.  Leaving pets outside in extreme cold temperatures, especially without adequate shelter, can be construed as animal cruelty and may be cause for legal action.  If you see a pet outside and are concerned, you can contact your local police for guidance.

Wipe feet after walks outside-sidewalk salt can be irritating and may even be toxic.  Use a warm, damp rag to wipe feet after walks outside to prevent your pet from licking these.  Or invest in the aforementioned booties.  Use pet safe salt on your own driveways and sidewalks if you are able.

Stay off ice-even with the extreme cold we’ve been having, it is possible to get injured, loose control of your pet when there is no traction, or in the worst case scenario, fall through ice.

Monitor for signs of hypothermia.  Shivering, lethargy, progressing to slowed heart rate and respiratory rate (breathing), coma, and even death can occur.  Warm pets slowly, and avoid heating pads and other hot items when rewarming.  Call a veterinarian if you are concerned your pet may be suffering from hypothermia.

Make noise when starting vehicles-stray cats and other critters are drawn to the warmth of a recently run engine.  Tap on hood, honk horn, and check for animals before starting your vehicle.

If you are using antifreeze, make sure to keep pets out of the area and clean up any spills immediately.  Antifreeze is sweet and draws your pets’ attention, and is extremely toxic.  Call a veterinarian immediately if your pet gets into antifreeze.

Be prepared-if the power goes out or a blizzard strikes, make sure you have enough food and medications for at least 5 days for your pets.  Keep an emergency kit for your pet in case you need to relocate due to the weather-include food, medications, grooming supplies, vaccine records, and your veterinarian’s information at a minimum.

Lastly, leave your pet at home.  You’re probably bringing extra clothing for yourself in these extreme cold temperatures in case the car gets stranded.  You cannot do the same for your pets.  It is too cold for them to sit in the car waiting for you while you run errands, so unless you need to specifically bring them somewhere, leave them home and warm.

Now, as for the cabin fever from being stuck in the house.  Play games of hide and seek-hide treats around the house and let your dog sniff them out.  Play chase with a toy with your cat or dog.  Dogs can play fetch in the house going up and down stairs or hallways.  Puzzle toys encourage your pet to interact to get a treat.  Find a recipe for homemade pet treats that you can bake for something for the whole family to do and your pet to enjoy.


Winter Woes

posted on December 02, 2013 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

As winter officially begins, many of us are busy dealing with the household chores that freezing weather present.  Many of these tasks present hazards to our pets however.  Ice melts and antifreeze can both be toxic if ingested by our furry friends.

Ice melts are often applied to driveways and walkways to prevent people from slipping.  If they are spilled or tracked indoors, improperly stored, or if your pet spends too much time walking on or rolling on sidewalks that are treated, they may exhibit signs of toxicity.  Most commonly seen is vomiting, but diarrhea, excessive salivation (drooling), depression, decreased appetite, tremors, disorientation, increased thirst, seizures, and even death can result.  Depending on the method of exposure, a bath may be indicated to remove salt from hair and feet.  Inducing vomiting is sometimes indicated as well, but it depends on how long ago ingestion occurred and which type of ice melt was used.  Please contact a veterinarian to see if vomiting should be induced in your situation.  Hydration via IV catheter or subcutaneous fluids will help prevent or correct electrolyte issues.  If electrolyte disturbances are noted, an EKG may be recommended.  If seizures are occurring, an anti-seizure medication may be needed until the electrolytes are normalized again and seizures stop.  Lastly, anti-nausea medications may be needed to prevent vomiting.  Many of these treatments are dependent on what type of salt was ingested and which signs your pet is having, but early detection and correction will help prevent the more serious issues such as arrhythmias of the heart or seizures.  Please call as soon as you realize your pet may have ingested ice melt.  When walking your pet in winter, wiping the feet carefully after being outside will help remove residue and can also prevent those pesky snow balls that form inbetween feet.  Clipping the hair between toes and wearing booties are other options.

Antifreeze, or ethylene glycol, is another very toxic substance for our pets.  It often has a very sweet flavor to it, so pets are enticed to lick up spills or drink from toilets where it has been added.  Ethylene glycol can be measured in the bloodstream within 30 minutes of ingestion, and reaches peak levels in 1 hour in cats, and 3-6 hours in dogs.  The body metabolizes the chemical, and these metabolites are actually what is toxic to the pet.  They cause kidney damage, acidosis, and can cause the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in the urinary tract and mineralization of the kidneys.  Often the signs seen with ethylene glycol poisoning include depression, ataxia (walking uncoordinated/like they are drunk), vomiting, increased thirst, and increased urinations.  These signs can develop and persist from 30 minutes-12 hours after ingestion or longer.  If you suspect your pet has ingested ethylene glycol, please immediately contact your veterinarian.  If treatment is delayed until kidney damage occurs and kidney values in the blood are elevated, the prognosis is much poorer.

With a little prevention, winter can be a fun and enjoyable time for you and your pet.


How to Keep the Holidays Happy (and pets safe)

posted on December 02, 2012 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

The holidays are supposed to be a joyful time, and we here at Heritage Animal Hospital would like to help you keep it that way.  There are a number of items that can be found this time of year that can be harmful to your pets.  Items ranging from chocolate, alcohol, macadamia nuts, scented candles, tinsel and ribbons, antifreeze, and a number of plants can all pose threats to animals.  If you feel your pet may have gotten into any of these items, or is showing any of the signs listed below, please contact a veterinarian immediately.

Chocolate can be toxic to animals if it is eaten.  Signs of ingestion can include vomiting and diarrhea, increased urination, increased activity, and racing heartbeat.  Cookies and candies are a common source of chocolate, as are drinks such as hot cocoa.

Alcohol is toxic to animals, usually in smaller amounts than people would think.  Signs of intoxication include drowsiness, an ataxic walk (meaning un-coordinated, like a drunk person) and can progress to coma and respiratory rate depression, which can cause death.  The signs of antifreeze ingestion mimic alcohol intoxication, and are rapidly fatal, so if your pet is showing these signs, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Macadamia nuts are toxic to dogs.  Common in cookies and candies, these nuts can cause signs of weakness, muscle tremors, depression, vomiting, and ataxic walk.

In general, it is best to not give your pet any human foods during the holidays due to potential toxicities or stomach upset from foods their systems are not used to.  Raisins, grapes, garlic, onions, and other common ingredients may also be toxic to your pet.

Scented candles can pose a threat to some of our smaller animals such as birds and sugar gliders.  Strong odors from candles and other objects can cause respiratory distress, which can manifest as things such as increased respiratory rate, coughing, sneezing, and increased respiratory effort and noise.  Also, leaving candles lit where a pet could knock it over or singe whiskers can pose a serious burn risk for your pet or even your house.

Poinsettias, lilies, holly, mistletoe and other plants can be toxic if ingested, especially to cats.  Signs can include things such as vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, and changes in urination.

Ribbons and tinsel may catch your cat’s eye as a good toy, but can be very dangerous if ingested.  String like material tends to get stuck in the gastrointestinal tract and as the intestines try to continue to move it through, they will saw against the foreign material and can cause a leak in the intestinal wall.  The foreign material can also cause a blockage in the intestinal tract.  Signs of foreign body ingestion can include lack of appetite, vomiting, straining to defecate or diarrhea, and lethargy.

Christmas trees can pose additional risks as well.  Water from the Christmas tree can have additives in it that may be harmful to your pet ranging from stomach upset from sugar water to toxicity from fertilizers.  In addition, glass ornaments can cause potential problems if played with either when ingested or by causing wounds to paws and face.  Also, electrical wires can pose dangers to pets if they chew on them.  Lastly, make sure your tree is firmly anchored, especially if you have curious cats that like to climb.

Please limit your pet’s access to these potentially harmful items, and please call a veterinarian if your pet is showing any of the above signs or if you feel your pet may have gotten into something it shouldn’t have.  Together we can help keep your pet safe during the holiday season and into the new year!

Happy Holidays from Heritage Animal Hospital!

Posted in: Toxicity