Don’t let a bum knee bum out your pet (Part II)

posted on September 03, 2013 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

The most common injury to a dog’s knee is an ACL tear, which stands for anterior cruciate ligament tear.  In dogs, the more correct term is cranial cruciate ligament tear or rupture, CCLR.  This is simply because of the fact that dogs walk on all fours instead of upright, but the ligament is the same and serves the same function regardless of what it is called.

The ACL attaches at the rear of the femur, and crosses to the front of the knee to attach to the front of the tibia.  It’s function is to prevent abnormal forward movement of the tibia relative to the knee joint.  When torn, a veterinarian may be able to demonstrate this forward movement, called a drawer sign upon physical examination.

A pet that has torn it’s ACL may suddenly become non weight bearing lame on a rear leg, or may only toe touch with that leg.  If left alone, the pet seems to improve in a week or two, but this is simply because the body starts to make changes to the knee joint to try to stabilize it.  There are usually significant arthritic changes that occur if the torn ligament is not repaired.  In addition, dogs that tear one ligament are more likely to tear the other one, so repairing the first tear to prevent additional strain on the non-torn ligament is recommended.

There are a number of different methods to repair a torn ACL.  The choice is based on the pet’s age, activity level, degree of arthritis, size, and other factors.  Options for repair include:

  • Extracapsular repair
  • TPLO, or tibial plateau leveling osteotomy
  • TTA, or tibial tuberosity advancement

After surgery, anti-inflammatory pain medications or NSAIDs are often used.  Long term use of glucosamine and chondroitin are often recommended.  Rehabilitation exercises and restrictions of activity may be recommended as well.  Keeping the pet at a lean weight helps decrease strain on the joints.

If your pet has injured their knee, a veterinarian visit is in order.  X-rays or radiographs may be recommended, and if a torn ACL is diagnosed, a discussion with the specialty surgeon and your pet’s lifestyle will determine which type of surgery will be recommended.  Together we can help your pet regain as much function as possible and decrease the likelihood of arthritis in the future.  Call us today to discuss the options available to your pet!

Obesity as an Epidemic

posted on August 03, 2012 by Dr. Jamie Hartman

As the calendars turn to August, one thought enters my mind-food on a stick!  August brings the state fair, and while I know a deep fried candy bar on a stick is not healthy for me, as an occasional, once a year treat, it is okay to indulge.  While many people realize watching what we eat is important for a number of health reasons, these same people may not realize watching what our pets eat is just as important.

You may think an extra pound or two can’t hurt that much, but a pound is not just a pound.  While two or three additional pounds may have very little effect on you or me, they can be quite serious for your pet.  Three extra pounds on a 15 pound dog is equivalent to a 150 pound person gaining 30 extra pounds, and  3 extra pounds on a 10 pound cat is equal to 45 extra pounds on a 150 pound person!

Obesity and overweightness is the #1 health condition affecting American pets today.  Purina estimates that 58% of cats and 45% of dogs are overweight or obese.  This equals 35 million dogs and 54 million cats!

This is a serious epidemic as being overweight has been linked with a higher incidence of a number of health issues including oral (mouth) disease, skin disease, diabetes, pancreatitis, thyroid disease, joint diseases such as arthritis and hip dysplasia, hepatitis, urinary tract disease, asthma, torn ligaments such as ACLs, liver disease, heart disease, kidney disease, exercise intolerance, slower wound healing, increased anesthetic risk, and cancer.

Even more importantly, it has been found that being overweight can significantly decrease lifespan.  Purina did the first life-long study in dogs regarding diet and its effect on pets.  Half of the dogs were fed free choice, meaning they were allowed to eat as much as they liked.  The other half of the dogs were fed 25% less than what the free fed dogs ate.  The differences were amazing!

Dogs that were allowed to free feed had an average body condition score (BCS) of 6.7/9 (4.5/9 being ideal), whereas dogs that were slightly restricted had a BCS of 4.6.  The control fed dogs lived 15% longer-almost 2 years, with an average of 13 years in the control fed dogs versus 11.2 years in the free fed dogs.  Lastly, the control fed dogs didn’t start needing treatment for medical conditions until a median age of 12 years, whereas the free choice pets started needing treatment at a median age of 9.9 years.

What does this mean for your pet?  Simply put, a pet kept at a healthy weight throughout life is a healthier pet, and has a longer average lifespan.

How can you help keep your pet healthy?  Veterinarians use something called the body condition score to assess a pet’s weight, as there can be quite a range of “normal” weights for a specific dog breed.  Body condition score is a way to judge how much fat or muscle is on an animal and is more accurate than weight in judging an animal’s body composition.  It is based on a 1-9 scale, with a 4-5 being a healthy weight.

To score body condition, a couple areas are looked at:

  • Are the bones visible?  Bones such as the ribs, spine, and hip bones should not be visible in most dogs and cats.  Some breeds are naturally leaner and in them it may be normal to see the bones.
  • How easily are the ribs felt?  They should feel as though you are running your finger over the back of your other hand’s fingers.  There should be a slight fat covering, but you should not have to push hard to be able to feel the ribs.
  • Is there a tuck of the abdomen visible from the side of the animal?  There should be a nice tuck visible.
  • Is there a waist visible when viewing the animal from above?  There should be a waist visible.


If you think your pet may be overweight or obese and would like help formulating a diet plan, or if you would like to prevent your pet from becoming overweight, please contact us to discuss calorie requirements and feeding guidelines for your pet, or visit our website for more information.

Posted in: Obesity